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钛金属冶炼的生产成本以及新型钛冶金工艺的可能性

朱鸿民 肖九三 焦树强 卢鑫

朱鸿民, 肖九三, 焦树强, 卢鑫. 钛金属冶炼的生产成本以及新型钛冶金工艺的可能性[J]. 钢铁钒钛, 2021, 42(3): 10-16, 36. doi: 10.7513/j.issn.1004-7638.2021.03.002
引用本文: 朱鸿民, 肖九三, 焦树强, 卢鑫. 钛金属冶炼的生产成本以及新型钛冶金工艺的可能性[J]. 钢铁钒钛, 2021, 42(3): 10-16, 36. doi: 10.7513/j.issn.1004-7638.2021.03.002
Zhu Hongmin, Xiao Jiusan, Jiao Shuqiang, Lu Xin. Production cost of current titanium metallurgical process and possibility of new alternative process[J]. IRON STEEL VANADIUM TITANIUM, 2021, 42(3): 10-16, 36. doi: 10.7513/j.issn.1004-7638.2021.03.002
Citation: Zhu Hongmin, Xiao Jiusan, Jiao Shuqiang, Lu Xin. Production cost of current titanium metallurgical process and possibility of new alternative process[J]. IRON STEEL VANADIUM TITANIUM, 2021, 42(3): 10-16, 36. doi: 10.7513/j.issn.1004-7638.2021.03.002

钛金属冶炼的生产成本以及新型钛冶金工艺的可能性

doi: 10.7513/j.issn.1004-7638.2021.03.002
详细信息
  • 中图分类号: TF823

Production cost of current titanium metallurgical process and possibility of new alternative process

  • 摘要: 金属钛由于其优异的性能而被用作高端结构材料。然而,在我们的日常生活中金属钛的利用却非常有限。全球金属钛年产量仅为钛白粉的1/30,从金属钛的性能和其丰富资源储量来看是极其不自然的。制约金属钛广泛使用的主要因素是其昂贵的价格。比较了金属钛、铝以及钢铁从矿石原料到金属的生产过程,并分析了现行金属钛生产过程的成本构成。在此基础上,分析了迄今为止已开发的新型钛冶炼工艺,从缩短生产流程,尤其是减少化学反应步骤的角度出发,探讨简化冶金流程、降低生产成本的可能性。指出,比较而言,以钛铁矿FeTiO3作为起始原料,经过碳热还原制备碳氧化钛TiCxO1−x,进而熔盐电解制备金属钛的冶金流程,有望大幅度降低能耗和生产成本。有待解决的问题是碳氧化钛阳极的规模化加工,以及在实际电解过程的连续运行等。
  • 图  1  金属价格与全球年产量的关系

    Figure  1.  The relationship between metal price and its production

    图  2  金属价格与地壳中元素丰度的关系

    Figure  2.  The relationship between metal price and its reserves

    图  3  现行金属钛冶炼工艺(Kroll法)[1]

    Figure  3.  The current titanium production process (Kroll process)[1]

    图  4  从钛铁矿(FeTiO3)出发的现行金属钛冶炼工艺的反应过程

    Figure  4.  The chemical reactions in the current process of titanium production from ilmenite (FeTiO3)

    图  5  钛锭、铝锭、不锈钢的分项成本对比

    Figure  5.  Comparison of subdivisional cost on ingot of titanium, aluminum, and stainless steel

    图  6  钛、铝、不锈钢铸锭的生产能耗对比

    Figure  6.  The energy consumption for ingot production of titanium, aluminum, and stainless steel

    图  7  四氯化钛电解工艺中的化学反应

    Figure  7.  The chemical reactions in the titanium production process through TiCl4 electrolysis

    图  8  Ti-O二元系的电导率

    Figure  8.  Electronic conductivity of Ti-O system

    图  9  可溶阳极熔盐电解工艺(USTB法)示意[23-25]

    Figure  9.  Schematic diagram of electrolysis process with consumable anode for titanium production, the USTB process[23-25]

    图  10  TiC0.5O0.5在氯化物熔体中电解的电极反应和电池反应

    Figure  10.  Electrode reactions and cell reaction during the electrolysis of TiC0.5O0.5 in chloride melt

    图  11  碳氧化钛在NaCl-KCl熔体中电解的阴极沉积产物的(a)扫描电镜照片,(b)X射线衍射图谱[24]

    Figure  11.  Titanium metal deposited on the cathode after electrolysis in NaCl–KCl melt: (a) scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the product powder and (b) X-ray diffraction pattern of the product titanium[24]

    图  12  从钛铁矿到金属钛的新冶炼工艺流程

    Figure  12.  The chemical reactions in the proposed new metallurgical process through titanium oxycarbide electrolysis from ilmenite (FeTiO3)

    图  13  (a)钛铁矿原料和经碳热还原和分离工序得到的(b)TiCxO1−x粉末、(c)副产品:铁粉的光学照片和X射线衍射图谱

    Figure  13.  Photo images and X-ray diffraction patterns of (a): ilmenite ore used for the carbon reduction, (b): TiCxO1−x product powders after reduction and separation, and (c): by-product iron (Fe) powders

    表  1  金属含量、世界年产量、矿石价格和金属价格

    Table  1.   Reserves (Clarke number, CN), world annual production (WAP), mining cost (MC), and price of metals

    元素金属含量(CN)
    ×106
    世界年产量
    /万t
    矿石价格
    /(美元· t−1)
    金属价格/(美元· t−1)
    Al8130058002602 000
    Fe50000162800150325
    Mg209001012452180
    Ti4400204608150
    Zn70140024002860
    Cu55235050905870
    Pb13111023702720
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-04-08
  • 刊出日期:  2021-06-10

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