Separating and Extracting of Vanadium and Titanium
Global vanadium industry development report 2021
Wu You, Chen Donghui, Liu Wuhan, Sun Zhaohui, Zhang Bangxu, He Rui
2022, 43(5): 1-9.   doi: 10.7513/j.issn.1004-7638.2022.05.001
Abstract(19) HTML(4) PDF(4)
Abstract:
The overall situation of the global vanadium industry was elaborated and analyzed from the global vanadium resources and the production capacity, the output, supply and demand, import and export, as well as the market prices in 2021. The major events in the global vanadium battery field are also introduced. Based on the current operating situation of the vanadium industry at home and abroad, the outlook for the market is forecasted, and it is believed that compared with "manufacture green cleaning products", the level of "green manufacturing" of the industrial ontology still needs to be continuously improved and balanced. The global vanadium price is affected by multiple factors, and will still show shock and consolidation trend. In the next few years, China will still be the world's largest vanadium supply and demand market, and the production capacity expansion of industrial supply side will accelerate. The medium and long-term vanadium demand will be supported by steel, materials and energy storage fields.
Application of Vanadium and Titanium
Regulation on electronic structure of VN-based materials for enhanced supercapacitor performances
Zhang Dongbin, Chang Zhi, Teng Aijun, Liu Tianhao, Dai Yu, Peng Xianzhu, Du Guangchao, Kang Ju
2022, 43(5): 45-51.   doi: 10.7513/j.issn.1004-7638.2022.05.007
Abstract(5) HTML(1) PDF(0)
Abstract:
In this paper, a method to improve the electrochemical performances of VN-based materials by electronic structure regulation is proposed. By Fe doping, the electronic structure of VN-based materials was modified for better electrochemical performances. XRD, HRTEM, XPS and other methods were used to characterize the effect of Fe on the microstructure and electronic structure of VN-based materials. Combined with the DFT calculation, it shows that the electron/ion transport capacity of VN-based materials is changed by introduction of Fe element, which endows the as-prepared Fe-VN material with excellent supercapacitor performances. The specific capacity is 343.75 F/g at a current density of 1 A/g, and 85% of the initial capacity can be retained after 1000 charge-discharge cycles.
Resources Environment and Energy Saving
Study on the transformation mechanism of chromium in chromium sludge under reducing atmosphere
Wan Xinyu, Gao Jianjun, Cao Zhicheng, Wu Peipei, Xu Haichuan
2022, 43(5): 106-110, 122.   doi: 10.7513/j.issn.1004-7638.2022.05.015
Abstract(3) HTML(1) PDF(0)
Abstract:
In this paper, the transformation mechanism of chromium in chromium sludge was studied under reducing atmosphere, and the feasibility of rotary hearth furnace (RHF) for treating chromium sludge was discussed. The results show that chromium mainly exists in the form of chromium hydroxide, calcium chromate and sodium chromate in the sludge. Under the CO-CO2 atmosphere, the Cr(III) in the chromium sludge will not be oxidized to Cr(VI) and the original hexavalent chromium in the sludge will be reduced to trivalent chromium. Under the same CO concentration, the conversion rate of hexavalent chromium gradually decreases with the proportion of chromium mud increase. Under the CO-CO2-O2-N2 atmosphere, after adding 3% and 6% oxygen, the conversion rate of hexavalent chromium and the change rate of hexavalent chromium are both negative, and Cr(III) will still not be oxidized to Cr(VI). Therefore, it is feasible to carry out harmless disposal of chromium sludge in the rotary hearth furnace process.
Ferrous Metallurgy and Materials
Simulation study on the eccentric stirring of hot metal desulfurization
Yu Qingchun, Liu Zhiping, Yin Shubiao, Zhang Songlai
2022, 43(5): 129-135.   doi: 10.7513/j.issn.1004-7638.2022.05.019
Abstract(1) HTML(1) PDF(1)
Abstract:
Based on the actual size of molten iron tank, a physical model was proportionally established to simulate the eccentric stirring desulfurization using KR method. Numerical simulation was made to simulate the desulfurization process of hot metal with eccentric stirring by VOF multiphase flow model, standard k-ɛ turbulence model and Multiple Reference Frame method (MRF) using CFD software. It is found that the vortex shape is irregular during the eccentric stirring process, and the maximum vortex depth is located in the center of the mixer. Fluid moves strongly near the agitator wall, and flows along the upper and lower directions. Fluid in the far side moves slowly, and the average fluid velocity in the end side of blade is about twice that in the far side. Eccentric stirring can change the motion state of fluid at the bottom of the mixer and reduce the "dead zone". When the stirring speed increases from 120 r/min to 200 r/min, the average fluid speed increases by about 68%, and the volume proportion of high-speed fluid decreases slightly, from 60.4% to 57.9%. Eccentric stirring is easy to be realized in industry, and the increase of speed is beneficial to the diffusion of desulfurizer, however, the economy and safety should be considered for optimum speed.
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Status of titanium dioxide industry in China and the development prospect
Bi Sheng
2021, 42(2): 1-4.   doi: 10.7513/j.issn.1004-7638.2021.02.001
[Abstract](181) [FullText HTML](55) [PDF 546KB](26)
摘要:
总结回顾了中国钛白粉工业2019、2020年的各项行业数据和表现,分析了当前面临的形势及发展趋势,认为高质量发展成为钛白粉行业未来发展的主旋律,钛白粉产能集中度虽有提高,但洗牌效应短期内难以呈现,这也是行业发展的一个难题,另外行业监管、氯化法钛原料问题、环保及清洁生产问题仍不容忽视。
Study on beneficiation process of a low grade ilmenite in Panxi
Yang Daoguang
2022, 43(3): 111-117.   doi: 10.7513/j.issn.1004-7638.2022.03.018
[Abstract](47) [FullText HTML](2) [PDF 720KB](10)
摘要:
某低品位钒钛磁铁矿,TiO2品位为6.15%,矿物组成复杂,为充分回收其中的钛铁矿,针对钛的赋存状态及粒级分布特点,制定了强磁磁选预抛尾、重选提质、细磨弱磁选除铁、反浮选脱硫与一粗一扫两精浮钛组合工艺流程,研究了磁感应强度、磁介质大小、脉动冲程、磨矿浓度、磨矿时间、浮选调整剂及捕收剂用量等的影响,在获得最优工艺条件的基础上,按“一段强磁抛尾—两段重选抛尾—磨矿—除铁—浮选”的工艺流程进行了闭路试验。试验获得了TiO2品位48.22%,回收率为35.19%的钛精矿。矿石中主要有用的矿物钛铁矿得到了有效的回收。
Application of rutile nano titanium dioxide in coatings
Wu Jianchun
2021, 42(1): 43-49.   doi: 10.7513/j.issn.1004-7638.2021.01.007
[Abstract](154) [FullText HTML](5) [PDF 1313KB](3)
摘要:
利用透射电镜(TEM)对纳米二氧化钛的形貌和粒度进行分析后,将纳米二氧化钛制成乳胶漆、汽车漆、家具漆和防腐漆,对其进行耐候性、随角异色等性能分析。结果表明,金红石纳米二氧化钛可大幅度提高乳胶漆的耐候性、耐水性、耐碱性和耐洗刷性能,可提高家具漆和防腐漆的耐候性;纳米二氧化钛和铝粉配合制成的汽车漆具有随角异色效果,二氧化钛的粒度对其随角异色性能有很大影响,平均粒径为280 nm的普通颜料钛白改性铝粉漆无随角异色效果,平均粒径为35 nm的纳米二氧化钛改性铝粉漆有显著的随角异色效果,并且随纳米二氧化钛加量的增加,其不同角度的颜色差异增大。
Report on China titanium industry in 2020
Jia Hong, Lu Fusheng, Hao Bin
2021, 42(3): 1-9.   doi: 10.7513/j.issn.1004-7638.2021.03.001
[Abstract](559) [FullText HTML](303) [PDF 867KB](127)
摘要:
从2020年我国钛工业钛精矿、海绵钛、钛锭、钛材等品种的产能、产量、应用和进出口等数据分析了我国钛工业的整体情况,并对目前行业存在的问题提出了建议。
Inclusion analysis in magnesium free-cutting steel
Zhu Qiangbin, Li Jie, Deng Xiangyang, Tian Qianren, Zeng Zhiqi, Fu Jianxun
2021, 42(2): 179-187, 192.   doi: 10.7513/j.issn.1004-7638.2021.02.029
[Abstract](115) [FullText HTML](3) [PDF 2017KB](4)
摘要:
为了探究Mg处理对易切削钢中夹杂物的影响,以1144高硫易切削钢为试验钢种,采用金相和能谱仪等手段研究了Mg处理对1144易切削钢中夹杂物的形态、尺寸分布和夹杂物成分的影响。结果表明:在易切削钢铸坯中,Mg处理使得易切削钢铸坯硫化物夹杂由Ⅱ类向Ⅲ类、Ⅰ类转变,分布更为均匀,同时使得复合硫化锰夹杂物比例提升。在轧材中,使得钢中夹杂物球化,并且钢中硫化锰夹杂物的尺寸和分布也得到了较好的改善,同时,Mg处理能够有效提高易切削钢的切削加工性能。
Study on microalloying and heat treatment process of spring steel 55SiCrV
Meng Jian
2021, 42(3): 187-192.   doi: 10.7513/j.issn.1004-7638.2021.03.028
[Abstract](114) [FullText HTML](8) [PDF 850KB](3)
摘要:
在弹簧钢55SiCr成分基础上进行钒微合金化处理,获得了55SiCrV,通过淬火+回火正交试验、显微组织观察、力学性能测试和X射线衍射等手段,研究并分析了淬火+回火工艺对弹簧钢55SiCrV微观组织和力学性能的影响,结果表明:0.20%V的添加可使55SiCrV组织中存在大量弥散均匀分布的10~35 nm含钒析出相,强化效果最佳。淬火+回火处理可以改变55SiCrV的显微组织比例,其中的残余奥氏体可以降低强度和增加塑性,55SiCrV获得最佳力学性能匹配(Rm=1 815 MPa、Z=28%)的热处理工艺为900 ℃淬火+430 ℃回火,对应其残余奥氏体含量为2.3%。
Review on research progress of high purity vanadium pentoxide preparation by chlorination process
Li Zhuochen, Du Guangchao, Fan Chuanlin, Zhu Qingshan
2021, 42(1): 8-15, 92.   doi: 10.7513/j.issn.1004-7638.2021.01.002
[Abstract](240) [FullText HTML](21) [PDF 1143KB](24)
摘要:
随着全钒液流电池等产业的快速发展,作为关键原料的高纯五氧化二钒,其需求日益增加。在高纯五氧化二钒的众多制备工艺中,氯化法因具有高效清洁、选择性高、产品纯度高等显著优势受到越来越多的关注。针对氯化法制备高纯五氧化二钒的三个关键技术环节:钒原料氯化过程的热力学、动力学和氯化工艺、粗三氯氧钒精制以及三氯氧钒转化制备五氧化二钒的研究进展结合相关文献进行系统评述,其中二次钒资源的高效利用,粗三氯氧钒选择性水解四氯化钛以及三氯氧钒催化氧化制备高纯五氧化二钒是各环节未来的发展方向,此外,开展氯化法制备高纯五氧化二钒的中间试验及关键装备技术的开发是未来实现产业化生产的重点及难点。
Effect of ESR on oxygen content and inclusions in GCr15 bearing steel
Chang Kaihua, Xu Tao, Zhu Chunli, Zhang Longfei, Su Yunlong, Shi Xiaofang, Chang Lizhong
2021, 42(4): 175-181.   doi: 10.7513/j.issn.1004-7638.2021.04.029
[Abstract](163) [FullText HTML](5) [PDF 1339KB](9)
摘要:
电渣重熔对于提高钢的纯净度有明显的效果,但对于低氧含量钢种存在增氧现象。通过采用GCr15轴承钢作为自耗电极,研究在大气环境下和Ar保护下使用不同渣系对轴承钢中氧含量及夹杂物的变化规律。研究发现,采用CaF2-Al2O3-CaO三元渣系在氩气保护下电渣重熔GCr15轴承钢时,电渣锭中的氧含量随渣系中的Al2O3含量下降而降低,而使用不含Al2O3渣系重熔的电渣锭中氧含量最低;氩气保护下重熔的电渣锭中的夹杂物直径均比使用同种渣系在空气中重熔的电渣锭要小。氧含量增加主要是因为电渣重熔过程渣池温度过高,导致渣中Al2O3稳定性变差所致。
Effect of annealing temperature on microstructure and mechanical properties of vanadium microalloyed 780 MPa cold rolled dual phase steel
Yu Cansheng, Zhang Longchao, Zheng Zhiwang, Gong Hui, Zhang Dafu
2021, 42(5): 158-163.   doi: 10.7513/j.issn.1004-7638.2021.05.024
[Abstract](111) [FullText HTML](3) [PDF 883KB](7)
摘要:
将钒微合金化试验钢分别加热至780、800、820 ℃和840 ℃保温一段时间后,依次经过缓慢冷却、快速冷却、模拟镀锌后,空冷至室温。研究结果表明,780 ℃退火时微观组织均匀性较差且发现未溶解的碳化物,导致强度和塑性均不佳。随着退火温度的升高,铁素体尺寸及分数逐渐降低,中低温转变产物含量逐步增加且其尺寸有所粗化。当退火温度为800 ℃时,马氏体含量达到最大,当退火温度进一步升高时,马氏体含量有所降低,而贝氏体含量则有所增加,导致抗拉强度在800~840 ℃范围内变化不大,而延伸率先升高后降低。当退火温度为820 ℃ 时,带钢获得较佳的力学性能,屈服强度、抗拉强度、屈强比、断后伸长率A80和扩孔率分别为486 MPa、835 MPa、0.58、16.0%和27%。
Current situation of resource utilization of waste acid from titanium dioxide production
Gao Guangyan, Gao Likun, Rao Bing, Wang Feiwang, Shen Hairong
2021, 42(5): 99-108.   doi: 10.7513/j.issn.1004-7638.2021.05.016
[Abstract](197) [FullText HTML](30) [PDF 1047KB](12)
摘要:
钛白废酸中含有可观的资源,废酸的再加工与增值正逐渐成为钛颜料工业的焦点。针对硫酸法钛白副产废酸的回收与利用现状展开综述,主要介绍了废酸在提取金属元素、浸出金属元素、回收硫酸以及工业生产方面的应用,并在此基础上,对今后钛白废酸资源化利用的发展做了相关展望,以期为相关行业的从业者带来废酸利用方面的参考。
Report on China titanium industry in 2020
Jia Hong, Lu Fusheng, Hao Bin
2021, 42(3): 1-9.   doi: 10.7513/j.issn.1004-7638.2021.03.001
[Abstract](559) [FullText HTML](303) [PDF 867KB](303)
Abstract:
The overall situation of China titanium industry was analyzed in basis of the production capacity, application and import & export amount of titanium concentrate, titanium sponge, titanium ingot and titanium materials in 2020. The existed problems and the corresponding suggestions were also proposed.
Global vanadium industry development report 2020
Wu You, Chen Donghui, Liu Wuhan, Sun Zhaohui, Zhang Bangxu
2021, 42(5): 1-9.   doi: 10.7513/j.issn.1004-7638.2021.05.001
[Abstract](421) [FullText HTML](55) [PDF 1046KB](55)
Abstract:

The overall situation of the global vanadium industry was elaborated and analyzed from the global vanadium resources and the production capacity, the output, supply and demand, import and export, as well as the market prices of vanadium pentoxide, ammonium metavanadate, ferrovanadium and vanadium-nitrogen (VN) alloys in 2020. The major events in the global vanadium battery field are also introduced. Based on the current operating situation of the vanadium industry at home and abroad, the outlook for the market is forecasted, and it is believed that the global vanadium expansion situation will not be greatly changed in the short term, and the oversupply will bring about the price fluctuation of vanadium products in the specific range. The Chinese market under the background of “efforts to achieve carbon peak and neutrality goals” is still the main focus for global vanadium demand, and VN alloys will also be the trend of vanadium products in the near and mid-term. Collaborative innovation between vanadium enterprises will promote the vanadium industry to gradually show a positive “competition and cooperation” situation.

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