Volume 42 Issue 6
Dec.  2021
Turn off MathJax
Article Contents
Chen Yuyong, Wu Jingxi. Research and advances in processing, working, microstructure, properties and industrial application of β-solidifying TiAl alloy[J]. IRON STEEL VANADIUM TITANIUM, 2021, 42(6): 1-16. doi: 10.7513/j.issn.1004-7638.2021.06.001
Citation: Chen Yuyong, Wu Jingxi. Research and advances in processing, working, microstructure, properties and industrial application of β-solidifying TiAl alloy[J]. IRON STEEL VANADIUM TITANIUM, 2021, 42(6): 1-16. doi: 10.7513/j.issn.1004-7638.2021.06.001

Research and advances in processing, working, microstructure, properties and industrial application of β-solidifying TiAl alloy

doi: 10.7513/j.issn.1004-7638.2021.06.001
  • Received Date: 2021-05-24
  • Publish Date: 2021-12-31
  • The third generation TiAl based intermetallic compounds (β-solidifying TiAl alloy) have a wide application in aerospace, automobile manufacturing and other advanced fields due to their excellent hot workability. However, the introduction of high temperature β phase not only improves the hot deformation capacity of the alloy, but also makes the microstructure evolution and performance optimization more complex. Meanwhile, the development of industrialization is relatively slow because of the influence of alloy composition and poor intrinsic brittleness. This paper provides an overview of the processing and working technologies, progress of microstructure, properties and the current industrialization situation of the typical β-solidifying TiAl alloy. The technology and cost advantages of processing and working were analyzed. The effect mechanisms of alloy composition, hot deformation, heat treatment and alloying on microstructure evolution and property optimization were clarified, and the restrictions and future prospects of industrialization were pointed out.
  • loading
  • [1]
    Hu H, Wu X Z, Wang R, et al. Phase stability, mechanical properties and electronic structure of TiAl alloying with W, Mo, Sc and Yb: first-principles study[J]. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 2016,658:689−696. doi: 10.1016/j.jallcom.2015.10.270
    Ostrovskaya O, Badini C, Baudana G, et al. Thermogravimetric investigation on oxidation kinetics of complex Ti-Al alloys[J]. Intermetallics, 2018,93:244−250. doi: 10.1016/j.intermet.2017.09.020
    Qiu C H, Liu Y, Huang L, et al. Tuning mechanical properties for β(B2)-containing TiAl intermetallics[J]. Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, 2012,22:2593−2603. doi: 10.1016/S1003-6326(11)61505-7
    Jiang H T, Zeng S W, Zhao A M, et al. Hot deformation behavior of β phase containing γ-TiAl alloy[J]. Materials Science and Engineering A, 2016,661:160−167. doi: 10.1016/j.msea.2016.03.005
    Raji S A, Popoola A, Pityana S L, et al. Characteristic effects of alloying elements on β solidifying titanium aluminides: A review[J]. Heliyon, 2020,6(7):e04463. doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04463
    Chen W, Li Z. Additive manufacturing of titanium aluminides[J]. Additive Manufacturing for the Aerospace Industry, 2019,11:235−263.
    Mccullough C, Valencia J J, Levi C G, et al. Phase equilibria and solidification in Ti-Al alloys[J]. Acta Metallurgica, 1989,37(5):1321−1336. doi: 10.1016/0001-6160(89)90162-4
    Oehring M, Stark A, Paul J D H, et al. Microstructural refinement of boron-containing β-solidifying γ-titanium aluminide alloys through heat treatments in the β phase field[J]. Intermetallics, 2013,32:12−20. doi: 10.1016/j.intermet.2012.08.010
    Erdely P, Staron P, Stark A, et al. In situ and atomic-scale investigations of the early stages of γ precipitate growth in a supersaturated intermetallic Ti-44Al-7Mo solid solution[J]. Acta Materialia, 2019,164:110−121. doi: 10.1016/j.actamat.2018.10.042
    Zhang Y, Wang X P, Kong F T, et al. Microstructure, texture and mechanical properties of Ti-43Al-9V-0.2Y alloy hot-rolled at various temperatures[J]. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 2019,777:795−805. doi: 10.1016/j.jallcom.2018.10.362
    Zhang Y, Wang X P, Kong F T, et al. A high-performance β-solidifying TiAl alloy sheet: Multi-type lamellar microstructure and phase transformation[J]. Materials Characterization, 2018,138:136−144. doi: 10.1016/j.matchar.2018.02.005
    Zhang Y, Wang X P, Kong F T, et al. A high-performance β-stabilized Ti-43Al-9V-0.2Y alloy sheet with a nano-scaled antiphase domain[J]. Materials Letters, 2018,214:182−185. doi: 10.1016/j.matlet.2017.12.002
    Zhang D D, Chen Y Y, Zhang G Q, et al. Hot deformation behavior and microstructural evolution of PM Ti43Al9V0.3Y with fine equiaxed γ and B2 grain microstructure[J]. Materials, 2020,13(4):896. doi: 10.3390/ma13040896
    Liu G H, Li T R, Wang X Q, et al. Effect of alloying additions on work hardening, dynamic recrystallization, and mechanical properties of Ti-44Al-5Nb-1Mo alloys during direct hot-pack rolling[J]. Materials Science and Engineering A, 2020,773:138838. doi: 10.1016/j.msea.2019.138838
    Hu D, Yang C, Huang A, et al. Solidification and grain refinement in Ti45Al2Mn2Nb1B[J]. Intermetallics, 2012,22:68−76. doi: 10.1016/j.intermet.2011.11.003
    Kuang J P, Harding R A, Campbell J. Examination of defects in gamma titanium aluminide investment castings[J]. Cast Metals, 2000,13(3):125−134. doi: 10.1080/13640461.2000.11819395
    Tetsui T. Development of a TiAl turbocharger for passenger vehicles[J]. Materials Science and Engineering A, 2002,329-331(1):582−588.
    Schwaighofer E, Clemens H, Mayer S, et al. Microstructural design and mechanical properties of a cast and heat-treated intermetallic multi-phase γ-TiAl based alloy[J]. Intermetallics, 2014,44:128−140. doi: 10.1016/j.intermet.2013.09.010
    Bazhenov V E, Kuprienko V S, Fadeev A V, et al. Influence of Y and Zr on TiAl43Nb4Mo1B0.1 titanium aluminide microstructure and properties[J]. Materials Science and Technology, 2020,36(5):548−555. doi: 10.1080/02670836.2020.1716493
    Schmoelzer T, Mayer S, Sailer C, et al. In situ diffraction experiments for the investigation of phase fractions and ordering temperatures in Ti-44Al-(3~7) Mo alloys[J]. Advanced Engineering Materials, 2011,13(4):306−311. doi: 10.1002/adem.201000263
    Zhou H T, Kong F T, Wang X P, et al. Hot deformation behavior and microstructural evolution of as-forged Ti-44Al-8Nb-(W, B, Y) alloy with nearly lamellar microstructure[J]. Intermetallics, 2017,81:62−72. doi: 10.1016/j.intermet.2017.02.026
    Zhou H T, Kong F T, Wu K, et al. Hot pack rolling nearly lamellar Ti-44Al-8Nb-(W, B, Y) alloy with different rolling reductions: Lamellar colonies evolution and tensile properties[J]. Materials and Design, 2017,121:202−212. doi: 10.1016/j.matdes.2017.02.053
    Zhou H T, Kong F T, Wang X P, et al. High strength in high Nb containing TiAl alloy sheet with fine duplex microstructure produced by hot pack rolling[J]. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 2016,695:3495−3502.
    Xu R R, Li M Q. γ→β phase transformation in Ti-42.9Al-4.6Nb–2Cr[J]. Intermetallics, 2021,133:107169. doi: 10.1016/j.intermet.2021.107169
    Gao Q, Wang Z, Zhang L Q, et al. Joining of β-γ TiAl alloys containing high content of niobium by pulse current diffusion bonding[J]. Intermetallics, 2021,133:107184. doi: 10.1016/j.intermet.2021.107184
    Wu X H. Review of alloy and process development of TiAl alloys[J]. Intermetallics, 2006,14(10-11):1114−1122. doi: 10.1016/j.intermet.2005.10.019
    Aguilar J, Schievenbusch A, Kättlitz O. Investment casting technology for production of TiAl low pressure turbine blades-process engineering and parameter analysis[J]. Intermetallics, 2011,19:757−761. doi: 10.1016/j.intermet.2010.11.014
    Kothari K, Radhakrishnan R, Wereley N M. Advances in gamma titanium aluminides and their manufacturing techniques[J]. Progress in Aerospace Sciences, 2012,55:1−16. doi: 10.1016/j.paerosci.2012.04.001
    Gupta R K, Pant B, Sinha P P. Theory and practice of γ+α2 Ti aluminide: A review[J]. Transactions of the Indian Institute of Metals, 2014,67(2):143−165. doi: 10.1007/s12666-013-0334-y
    Su Y Q, Guo J J, Jia J, et al. Composition control of a TiAl melt during the induction skull melting (ISM) process[J]. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 2002,334(1-2):261−266. doi: 10.1016/S0925-8388(01)01766-2
    Singh V, Mondal C, Kumar A, et al. High temperature compressive flow behavior and associated microstructural development in a β-stabilized high Nb-containing γ-TiAl based alloy[J]. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 2019,778:573−585.
    Zhang S Z, Kong F T, Chen Y Y, et al. Phase transformation and microstructure evolution of differently processed Ti-45Al-9Nb-Y alloy[J]. Intermetallics, 2012,31:208−216. doi: 10.1016/j.intermet.2012.07.009
    Fang H Z, Chen R R, Liu Y L, et al. Effects of niobium on phase composition and improving mechanical properties in TiAl alloy reinforced by Ti2AlC[J]. Intermetallics, 2019,115:106630. doi: 10.1016/j.intermet.2019.106630
    Yang L, Chai L H, Liang Y F, et al. Numerical simulation and experimental verification of gravity and centrifugal investment casting low pressure turbine blades for high Nb-TiAl alloy[J]. Intermetallics, 2015,66:149−155. doi: 10.1016/j.intermet.2015.07.006
    Fu P X, Kang X H, Ma Y C, et al. Centrifugal casting of TiAl exhaust valves[J]. Intermetallics, 2008,16(2):130−138. doi: 10.1016/j.intermet.2007.08.007
    Cheng X, Yuan C, Blackburn S, et al. The influence of ZrO2 concentration in an yttria-based face coat for investment casting a Ti-45Al-2Mn-2Nb-0.2TiB alloy using a sessile drop method[J]. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 2015,46(3):1328−1336. doi: 10.1007/s11661-014-2724-0
    Cheng X, Yuan C, Blackburn S, et al. Influence of Al2O3 concentration in yttria based face coats for investment casting Ti-45Al-2Mn-2Nb-0.2TiB alloy[J]. Materials Science and Technology, 2014,30(14):1758−1764. doi: 10.1179/1743284713Y.0000000467
    Trzaska Z, Bonnefont G, Fantozzi G, et al. Comparison of densification kinetics of a TiAl powder by spark plasma sintering and hot pressing[J]. Acta Materialia, 2017,135:1−13. doi: 10.1016/j.actamat.2017.06.004
    Cobbinah P V, Matizamhuka W R. Solid-state processing route, mechanical behaviour, and oxidation resistance of TiAl alloys[J]. Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, 2019,(2):1−21.
    Wang Y H, Lin J P, He Y H, et al. Microstructures and mechanical properties of Ti-45Al-8.5Nb-(W, B, Y) alloy by SPS-HIP route[J]. Materials Science and Engineering A, 2008,489:56−61.
    Xu G, Jiang S D, Cao F Y, et al. A β-solidifying TiAl alloy reinforced with ultra-fine Y-rich precipitates[J]. Scripta Materialia, 2021,192:55−60. doi: 10.1016/j.scriptamat.2020.10.010
    Jabbar H, Monchoux J P, Thomas M, et al. Improvement of the creep properties of TiAl alloys densified by spark plasma sintering[J]. Intermetallics, 2014,46:1−3. doi: 10.1016/j.intermet.2013.10.019
    Srivastava D, Hu D, Chang I, et al. The influence of thermal processing route on the microstructure of some TiAl-based alloys[J]. Intermetallics, 1999,7(10):1107−1112. doi: 10.1016/S0966-9795(99)00029-1
    Kan W, Chen B, Peng H, et al. Formation of columnar lamellar colony grain structure in a high Nb-TiAl alloy by electron beam melting[J]. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 2019,809:151673. doi: 10.1016/j.jallcom.2019.151673
    Löber L, Schimansky F P, Kühn U, et al. Selective laser melting of a beta-solidifying TNM-B1 titanium aluminide alloy[J]. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 2014,214(9):1852−1860. doi: 10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2014.04.002
    Rittinghaus S K, Ramirez V, Zielinski J, et al. Oxygen gain and aluminum loss during laser metal deposition of intermetallic TiAl[J]. Journal of Laser Applications, 2019,31(4):1−12.
    Imayev V M, Imayev R M, Kuznetsov A V, et al. Superplastic properties of Ti-45.2Al-3.5(Nb, Cr, B) sheet material rolled below the eutectoid temperature[J]. Materials Science & Engineering A, 2003,348(1-2):15−21.
    Zhang S Z, Zhang C J, Du Z X, et al. Microstructure and tensile properties of hot fogred high Nb containing TiAl based alloy with initial near lamellar microstructure[J]. Materials Science and Engineering A, 2015,642:16−21. doi: 10.1016/j.msea.2015.06.066
    Kim Y W, Dimiduk D M. Progress in the understanding of gamma titanium aluminides[J]. JOM, 1991,43(8):40−47. doi: 10.1007/BF03221103
    Cho H S, Nam S W, Hwang S K, et al. Tensile creep deformation and fracture behaviors of the lamellar TiAl alloy of elemental powder metallurgy[J]. Scripta Materialia, 1997,36(11):1295−1301. doi: 10.1016/S1359-6462(96)00493-9
    Carneiro T, Kim Y W. Evaluation of ingots and alpha-extrusions of gamma alloys based on Ti-45Al-6Nb[J]. Intermetallics, 2005,13(9):1000−1007. doi: 10.1016/j.intermet.2004.12.008
    Tetsui T, Shindo K, Kaji S, et al. Fabrication of TiAl components by means of hot forging and machining[J]. Intermetallics, 2005,13(9):971−978. doi: 10.1016/j.intermet.2004.12.012
    Tetsui T, Shindo K, Kobayashi S, et al. Strengthening a high-strength TiAl alloy by hot-forging[J]. Intermetallics, 2003,11(4):299−306. doi: 10.1016/S0966-9795(02)00245-5
    Donald S, Kim Y W. Sheet rolling and performance evaluation of beta gamma (β-γ) alloys [C]// Ti-2007 Science and Engineering. Kyoto, Japan: The Japan Institute of Metals, 2007.
    Xu W C, Shan D B, Zhang H, et al. Effects of extrusion deformation on microstructure, mechanical properties and hot workability of β containing TiAl alloy[J]. Materials Science and Engineering A, 2013,571:199−206. doi: 10.1016/j.msea.2013.02.005
    Li T R, Liu G H, Xu M, et al. Effects of hot-pack rolling process on microstructure, high-temperature tensile properties, and deformation mechanisms in hot-pack rolled thin Ti-44Al-5Nb-(Mo, V, B) sheets[J]. Materials Science and Engineering A, 2019,764:138197. doi: 10.1016/j.msea.2019.138197
    Gerling R, Bartels A, Clemens H, et al. Structural characterization and tensile properties of a high niobium containing gamma TiAl sheet obtained by powder metallurgical processing[J]. Intermetallics, 2004,12(3):275−280. doi: 10.1016/j.intermet.2003.10.005
    Das G, Kestler H, Clemens H, et al. Sheet gamma TiAl: Status and opportunities[J]. JOM, 2004,56(11):42−45. doi: 10.1007/s11837-004-0251-y
    Cui N, Wu Q Q, Bi K X, et al. Effect of heat treatment on microstructures and mechanical properties of a novel β-solidifying TiAl alloy[J]. Materials, 2019,12(10):1672. doi: 10.3390/ma12101672
    Clemens H, Wallgram W, Kremmer S, et al. Design of novel β-solidifying TiAl alloys with adjustable β/B2-phase fraction and excellent hot-workability[J]. Advanced Engineering Materials, 2008,10(8):707−713. doi: 10.1002/adem.200800164
    Wu Q Q, Cui N, Xiao X H, et al. Hot deformation behavior and microstructural evolution of a novel-solidifying Ti-43Al-3Mn-2Nb-0.1Y alloy[J]. Materials, 2019,12:2172. doi: 10.3390/ma12132172
    Su Y J, Kong F T, Chen Y Y, et al. Microstructure and mechanical properties of large size Ti-43Al-9V-0.2Y alloy pancake produced by pack-forging[J]. Intermetallics, 2013,34:29−34. doi: 10.1016/j.intermet.2012.11.004
    Bolz S, Oehring M, Lindemann J, et al. Microstructure and mechanical properties of a forged β-solidifying γ TiAl alloy in different heat treatment conditions[J]. Intermetallics, 2015,58:71−83. doi: 10.1016/j.intermet.2014.11.008
    Jiang Z G, Chen B, Liu K, et al. Effects of boron on phase transformation of high Nb containing TiAl-based alloy[J]. Intermetallics, 2007,15(5-6):738−743. doi: 10.1016/j.intermet.2006.10.028
    Han J C, Xiao S L, Tian J, et al. Grain refinement by trace TiB2 addition in conventional cast TiAl-based alloy[J]. Materials Characterization, 2015,106:112−122. doi: 10.1016/j.matchar.2015.05.020
    Han J C, Xiao S L, Tian J, et al. Microstructure characterization, mechanical properties and toughening mechanism of TiB2-containing conventional cast TiAl-based alloy[J]. Materials Science and Engineering A, 2015,645:8−19. doi: 10.1016/j.msea.2015.07.092
    Chen Y Y, Kong F T, Han J C, et al. Influence of yttrium on microstructure, mechanical properties and deformability of Ti-43Al-9V alloy[J]. Intermetallics, 2005,13(3-4):263−266. doi: 10.1016/j.intermet.2004.07.014
    Li M G, Xiao S L, Chen Y Y, et al. The effect of carbon addition on the high-temperature properties of β solidification TiAl alloys[J]. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 2019,775:441−448. doi: 10.1016/j.jallcom.2018.09.397
    Fang H Z, Chen R R, Yang Y, et al. Role of graphite on microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of ternary TiAl alloy prepared by arc melting method[J]. Materials and Design, 2018,156:300−310. doi: 10.1016/j.matdes.2018.06.048
    Takeyama M, Kobayashi S. Physical metallurgy for wrought gamma titanium aluminides: Microstructure control through phase transformations[J]. Intermetallics, 2005,13(9):993−999. doi: 10.1016/j.intermet.2004.12.014
    Fang H Z, Chen R R, Chen X Y, et al. Effect of Ta element on microstructure formation and mechanical properties of high-Nb TiAl alloys[J]. Intermetallics, 2019,104:43−51. doi: 10.1016/j.intermet.2018.10.017
    Chen X F, Tang B, Liu Y, et al. Dynamic recrystallization behavior of the Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb alloy during isothermal hot deformation[J]. Progress in Natural Science:Materials International, 2019,29(5):587−594. doi: 10.1016/j.pnsc.2019.08.004
    Bao Y, Yang D Y, Liu N, et al. High temperature deformation behavior and processing map of hot isostatically pressed Ti-47.5Al-2Cr-2Nb-0.2W-0.2B alloy using gas atomization powders[J]. Journal of Iron and Steel Research(International), 2017,24(4):81−87.
    Kong F T, Cui N, Chen Y Y, et al. The hot deformation behavior of Ti-43A1-9V-Y alloy[J]. Acta Metallurgica Sinica, 2013,49(11):1363−1368. doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1037.2013.00513
    Li T R, Liu G H, Xu M, et al. Flow stress prediction and hot deformation mechanisms in Ti-44Al-5Nb-(Mo, V, B) alloy[J]. Materials, 2018,11(10):2044. doi: 10.3390/ma11102044
    Jiao Y, Wu T D, Zhang L J, et al. Effect of heat treatment on microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti48Al2Cr2Nb1B alloy[J]. Titanium Industry Progress, 2018,35(3):26−29.
    Sallot P, Monchoux J P, Joulié S, et al. Impact of β-phase in TiAl alloys on mechanical properties after high temperature air exposure[J]. Intermetallics, 2020,119:106729. doi: 10.1016/j.intermet.2020.106729
    Cui N, Wu Q Q, Bi K X, et al. Effect of multi-directional forging on the microstructure and mechanical properties of β-solidifying TiAl alloy[J]. Materials, 2019,12(9):1381. doi: 10.3390/ma12091381
    Mengis L, Ulrich A S, Watermeyer P, et al. Oxidation behaviour and related microstructural changes of two β0-phase containing TiAl alloys between 600 °C and 900 °C[J]. Corrosion Science, 2021,178:109085. doi: 10.1016/j.corsci.2020.109085
    Chen Y Y, Yang F, Kong F T, et al. Microstructure, mechanical properties, hot deformation and oxidation behavior of Ti-45Al-5.4V-3.6Nb-0.3Y alloy[J]. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 2010,498(1):95−101. doi: 10.1016/j.jallcom.2010.03.118
    Lu X, He X B, Zhang B, et al. High-temperature oxidation behavior of TiAl-based alloys fabricated by spark plasma sintering[J]. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 2009,478(1-2):220−225. doi: 10.1016/j.jallcom.2008.11.134
    Lin J P, Zhao L L, Li G Y, et al. Effect of Nb on oxidation behavior of high Nb containing TiAl alloys[J]. Intermetallics, 2011,19(2):131−136. doi: 10.1016/j.intermet.2010.08.029
    Jiang G H, Zhao C Z, Yu J J, et al. Effect of Cr on microstructure and oxidation behavior of TiAl-based alloy with high Nb[J]. China Foundry, 2018,15(1):25−30.
    Liu X P, Kai Y, Wang Z X, et al. Effect of Mo-alloyed layer on oxidation behavior of TiAl-based alloy[J]. Vacuum, 2013,89(1):209−214.
    Pan Y, Lu X, Hayat M D, et al. Effect of Sn addition on the high-temperature oxidation behavior of high Nb-containing TiAl alloys[J]. Corrosion Science, 2020,166:108449. doi: 10.1016/j.corsci.2020.108449
    Vojtěch D, Popela T, Kubásek J, et al. Comparison of Nb-and Ta-effectiveness for improvement of the cyclic oxidation resistance of TiAl-based intermetallics[J]. Intermetallics, 2011,19(4):493−501. doi: 10.1016/j.intermet.2010.11.025
    Yao T H, Liu Y, Liu B, et al. Influence of carburization on oxidation behavior of high Nb contained TiAl alloy[J]. Surface & Coatings Technology, 2015,277:210−215.
    Panov D O, Sokolovsky V S, Stepanov N D, et al. Oxidation resistance and thermal stability of a β-solidified γ-TiAl based alloy after nitrogen ion implantation[J]. Corrosion Science, 2020,177:109003. doi: 10.1016/j.corsci.2020.109003
    Yu L D, Thongtem S, Vilaithong T, et al. Modification of tribology and high-temperature behavior of Ti-47Al intermetallic alloy nitrided by N ion implantation[J]. Surface & Coatings Technology, 2000,128(1):410−417.
    Zhao B, Wu J S, Sun J. Effect of nitridation on the oxidation behavior of TiAl-based intermetallic alloys[J]. Intermetallics, 2001,9:697−703. doi: 10.1016/S0966-9795(01)00054-1
    Bewlay B P, Nag S, Suzuki A, et al. TiAl alloys in commercial aircraft engines[J]. Materials at High Temperatures, 2016,33(4-5):549−559. doi: 10.1080/09603409.2016.1183068
  • 加载中


    通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
    • 1. 

      沈阳化工大学材料科学与工程学院 沈阳 110142

    1. 本站搜索
    2. 百度学术搜索
    3. 万方数据库搜索
    4. CNKI搜索

    Figures(7)  / Tables(3)

    Article Metrics

    Article views (610) PDF downloads(98) Cited by()
    Proportional views


    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint